The development of a surface defect machining method for hard turning processes

Rashid, W.B. and Goel, S. and Luo, X. and Ritchie, J.M. (2013) The development of a surface defect machining method for hard turning processes. Wear, 302 (1-2). pp. 1124-1135. ISSN 0043-1648 (

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Hard turning (HT) is a material removal process employing a combination of a single point cutting tool and high speeds to machine hard ferrous alloys which exhibit hardness values over 45 HRC. In this paper, a surface defect machining (SDM) method for HT is proposed which harnesses the combined advantages of porosity machining and pulsed laser pre-treatment processing. From previous experimental work, this was shown to provide better controllability of the process and improved quality of the machined surface. While the experiments showed promising results, a comprehensive understanding of this new technique could only be achieved through a rigorous, in depth theoretical analysis. Therefore, an assessment of the SDM technique was carried out using both finite element method (FEM) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations.FEM modelling was used to compare the conventional HT of AISI 4340 steel (52 HRC) using an AlO insert with the proposed SDM method. The simulations showed very good agreement with the previously published experimental results. Compared to conventional HT, SDM provided favourable machining outcomes, such as reduced shear plane angle, reduced average cutting forces, improved surface roughness, lower residual stresses on the machined surface, reduced tool-chip interface contact length and increased chip flow velocity. Furthermore, a scientific explanation of the improved surface finish was revealed using a state-of-the-art MD simulation model which suggested that during SDM, a combination of both the cutting action and rough polishing action help improve the machined surface finish.