Single point diamond turning of calcium fluoride optics

Luo, X. and Sun, J. and Chang, W. and Ritchie, J.M.; Lee, W.B. and Cheung, C.F. and To, S., eds. (2012) Single point diamond turning of calcium fluoride optics. In: Key Engineering Materials. UNSPECIFIED, pp. 408-413. ISBN 9783037854280 (

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This paper aims to develop a cost-effective diamond turning process to obtain nano-smooth CaF optics. Diamond tool wear was also carried out through a number of cutting trials. Three CaF ecimens (diameter of 50 mm and thickness of 5 mm, crystal orientation of (111)) were diamond turned on an ultra precision lathe (Moore Nanotech 350UPL) by a number of facing cuts. In the cutting trials feed rate varied from 1 μm/rev to 10 μm/rev. White spirit mist was used as the coolant. Cutting forces were measured by a dynamometer (Kistler BA9256). Surface roughness of the CaF optics and tool flank wear were measured by a white light interferometer (Zygo Newview 5000) and a scanning electron microscope (FEI Quanta 3D FEG), respectively. It was found that using a feed rate of 1 μm/rev surface roughness Ra of 2 nm could be obtained. When the ratio of the normal cutting force to the tangential cutting force was lower than 1 tool wear would initiate. In diamond turning of calcium fluoride abrasive wear was the main tool wear mechanism. Using white spirit mist as thecoolant could avoid generation of thermal type brittle fracture on the machined CaF surfaces.