Picture of server farm and IT infrastructure

Where technology & law meet: Open Access research on data security & its regulation ...

Strathprints makes available Open Access scholarly outputs exploring both the technical aspects of computer security, but also the regulation of existing or emerging technologies. A research specialism of the Department of Computer & Information Sciences (CIS) is computer security. Researchers explore issues surrounding web intrusion detection techniques, malware characteristics, textual steganography and trusted systems. Digital forensics and cyber crime are also a focus.

Meanwhile, the School of Law and its Centre for Internet Law & Policy undertake studies on Internet governance. An important component of this work is consideration of privacy and data protection questions and the increasing focus on cybercrime and 'cyberterrorism'.

Explore the Open Access research by CIS on computer security or the School of Law's work on law, technology and regulation. Or explore all of Strathclyde's Open Access research...

Estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness in primary care in Scotland vary with clinical or laboratory endpoint and method : experience across the 2010/11 season

Kavanagh, Kimberley and Robertson, Charles and McMenamin, Jim (2013) Estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness in primary care in Scotland vary with clinical or laboratory endpoint and method : experience across the 2010/11 season. Vaccine, 31 (41). pp. 4556-4563. ISSN 0264-410X

[img] PDF
Distance_sum.pdf
Preprint

Download (1MB)

Abstract

Aim: This study examines estimation of seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) for a cohort of patients attending general practice in Scotland in 2010/11. The study focuses on the variation in estimation of VE for both virological and clinical consultation outcomes and understanding the dependency on date of analysis during the season, methodological approach and the effect of use of a propensity score model. Methods: For the clinical outcomes, three methodological approaches were considered; adjusted Poissonmulti-level modelling splitting consultations in vaccinated individuals into those before and after vaccination, adjusted Cox proportional hazards modelling and finally the screening method. For the virological outcome, the test-negative case–control study design was employed. Results: VE was highest for the most specific outcomes of ILI (Poisson end-of-season VE = 47% (95% CI:−69%, 83%); Cox VE = 34% (95% CI: −64%, 73.2%); Screening VE = 52.8% (95% CI: 3.8%, 76.8%)) and a viro-logical diagnosis (VE = 54% (95% CI: −37%, 85%)). Using the Cox approach, adjusted for propensity scoreonly gave VE = 46.5% (95% CI: −30.4%, 78.0%). Conclusion: Our approach illustrated the ability to achieve relatively consistent estimates of seasonalinfluenza VE using both specific and less specific outcomes. Construction of a propensity score and usefor bias adjustment increased the estimate of ILI VE estimated from the Cox model and made estimatesmore similar to the Poisson approach, which models differences in consultation behaviour of vacci-nated individuals more inherently in its structure. VE estimation for the same data was found to vary bymethodology which should be noted when comparing results from different studies and countries.