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Literary linguistics: Open Access research in English language

Strathprints makes available Open Access scholarly outputs by English Studies at Strathclyde. Particular research specialisms include literary linguistics, the study of literary texts using techniques drawn from linguistics and cognitive science.

The team also demonstrates research expertise in Renaissance studies, researching Renaissance literature, the history of ideas and language and cultural history. English hosts the Centre for Literature, Culture & Place which explores literature and its relationships with geography, space, landscape, travel, architecture, and the environment.

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Estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness in primary care in Scotland vary with clinical or laboratory endpoint and method : experience across the 2010/11 season

Kavanagh, Kimberley and Robertson, Charles and McMenamin, Jim (2013) Estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness in primary care in Scotland vary with clinical or laboratory endpoint and method : experience across the 2010/11 season. Vaccine, 31 (41). pp. 4556-4563. ISSN 0264-410X

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Abstract

Aim: This study examines estimation of seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) for a cohort of patients attending general practice in Scotland in 2010/11. The study focuses on the variation in estimation of VE for both virological and clinical consultation outcomes and understanding the dependency on date of analysis during the season, methodological approach and the effect of use of a propensity score model. Methods: For the clinical outcomes, three methodological approaches were considered; adjusted Poissonmulti-level modelling splitting consultations in vaccinated individuals into those before and after vaccination, adjusted Cox proportional hazards modelling and finally the screening method. For the virological outcome, the test-negative case–control study design was employed. Results: VE was highest for the most specific outcomes of ILI (Poisson end-of-season VE = 47% (95% CI:−69%, 83%); Cox VE = 34% (95% CI: −64%, 73.2%); Screening VE = 52.8% (95% CI: 3.8%, 76.8%)) and a viro-logical diagnosis (VE = 54% (95% CI: −37%, 85%)). Using the Cox approach, adjusted for propensity scoreonly gave VE = 46.5% (95% CI: −30.4%, 78.0%). Conclusion: Our approach illustrated the ability to achieve relatively consistent estimates of seasonalinfluenza VE using both specific and less specific outcomes. Construction of a propensity score and usefor bias adjustment increased the estimate of ILI VE estimated from the Cox model and made estimatesmore similar to the Poisson approach, which models differences in consultation behaviour of vacci-nated individuals more inherently in its structure. VE estimation for the same data was found to vary bymethodology which should be noted when comparing results from different studies and countries.