A cavity-QED scheme for Heisenberg-limited interferometry

Vitali, David and Kuhr, Stefan and Brune, Michel and Raimond, Jean-Michel (2007) A cavity-QED scheme for Heisenberg-limited interferometry. Journal of Modern Optics, 54 (11). pp. 1551-1567. ISSN 0950-0340 (https://doi.org/10.1080/09500340600741124)

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We propose a Ramsey interferometry experiment using an entangled state of N atoms to approach the Heisenberg limit for the estimation of an atomic phase shift if the atom number parity is perfectly determined. In a more realistic situation, due to statistical fluctuations of the atom source and the finite detection efficiency, the parity is unknown. We then achieve about half the Heisenberg limit. The scheme involves an ensemble of circular Rydberg atoms which dispersively interact successively with two initially empty microwave cavities. The scheme does not require very high-Q cavities. An experimental realization with about ten entangled Rydberg atoms is achievable with a state of art apparatus.