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Demonstration of sustained and useful converter responses during balanced and unbalanced faults in microgrids

Roscoe, Andrew and Jackson, Gordon and Elders, Ian and McCarthy, J. and Burt, Graeme (2012) Demonstration of sustained and useful converter responses during balanced and unbalanced faults in microgrids. In: Electrical systems for aircraft, railway and ship propulsion (ESARS), 2012. Proceedings. IEEE, Piscataway, N.J.. ISBN 9781467313704

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In large power grids where converter penetration is presently low and the network impedance is predominantly reactive, the required response from converters during faults is presently specified by phrases such as “maximum reactive output”. However, in marine and aero power systems most faults are unbalanced, the network impedance is resistive, and converter penetration may be high. Therefore a balanced reactive fault current response to an unbalanced fault may lead to over-voltages or over/under frequency events. Instead, this paper presents a method of controlling the converter as a balanced voltage source behind a reactance, thereby emulating the fault response of a synchronous generator (SG) as closely as possible. In this mode there is a risk of converter destruction due to overcurrent. A new way of preventing destruction but still providing fault performance as close to a SG as possible is presented. Demonstrations are presented of simulations and laboratory testing at the 10kVA 400V scale, with balanced and unbalanced faults. Currents can be limited to about 1.5pu while still providing appropriate unbalanced fault response within a resistive network.