Picture map of Europe with pins indicating European capital cities

Open Access research with a European policy impact...

The Strathprints institutional repository is a digital archive of University of Strathclyde's Open Access research outputs. Strathprints provides access to thousands of Open Access research papers by Strathclyde researchers, including by researchers from the European Policies Research Centre (EPRC).

EPRC is a leading institute in Europe for comparative research on public policy, with a particular focus on regional development policies. Spanning 30 European countries, EPRC research programmes have a strong emphasis on applied research and knowledge exchange, including the provision of policy advice to EU institutions and national and sub-national government authorities throughout Europe.

Explore research outputs by the European Policies Research Centre...

Three-dimensional flow of Newtonian and Boger fluids in square-square contractions

Sousa, P.C. and Coelho, P.M. and Oliveira, Monica and Alves, M.A. (2009) Three-dimensional flow of Newtonian and Boger fluids in square-square contractions. Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics, 160 (2-3). pp. 122-139. ISSN 0377-0257

Oliveira_M_Three_dimensional_flow_of_Newtonian_and_Boger_fluids_in_square_square_contractions_Aug_2009.pdf - Final Published Version

Download (4MB) | Preview


The flow of a Newtonian fluid and a Boger fluid through sudden square–square contractions was investigated experimentally aiming to characterize the flow and provide quantitative data for benchmarking in a complex three-dimensional flow. Visualizations of the flow patterns were undertaken using streakline photography, detailed velocity field measurementswere conducted using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and pressure drop measurements were performed in various geometries with different contraction ratios. For the Newtonian fluid, the experimental results are compared with numerical simulations performed using a finite volume method, and excellent agreement is found for the range of Reynolds number tested (Re2 ≤23). For the viscoelastic case, recirculations are still present upstream of the contraction but we also observe other complex flow patterns that are dependent on contraction ratio (CR) and Deborah number (De2) for the range of conditions studied: CR = 2.4, 4, 8, 12 and De2 ≤150. For low contraction ratios strong divergent flow is observed upstream of the contraction, whereas for high contraction ratios there is no upstream divergent flow, except in the vicinity of the re-entrant corner where a localized a typical divergent flow is observed. For all contraction ratios studied, at sufficiently high Deborah numbers, strong elastic vortex enhancement upstream of the contraction is observed, which leads to the onset of a periodic complex flow at higher flow rates. The vortices observed under steady flow are not closed, and fluid elasticity was found to modify the flow direction within the recirculations as compared to that found for Newtonian fluids. The entry pressure drop, quantified using a Couette correction, was found to increase with the Deborah number for the higher contraction ratios.