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Surface enhanced optical spectroscopies for bioanalysis

Larmour, Iain A. and Graham, Duncan (2011) Surface enhanced optical spectroscopies for bioanalysis. Analyst, 136 (19). pp. 3831-3853. ISSN 0003-2654

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Surface enhancement can provide improved detection sensitivity in a range of optical spectroscopies. When applied to bioanalysis these enhanced techniques allow for the detection of disease biomarkers at lower levels, which has a clear patient benefit. However, to achieve widespread clinical use of surface enhanced techniques there remain several "grand challenges". In this review we consider the substrates employed to achieve enhancement before reviewing each enhanced optical technique in detail; surface plasmon resonance, localised surface plasmon resonance, surface enhanced fluorescence, surface enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy and surface enhanced (resonance) Raman spectroscopy. Finally we set out the "grand challenges" currently facing the field.