Picture of industrial chimneys polluting horizon

Open Access research shaping international environmental governance...

Strathprints makes available scholarly Open Access content exploring environmental law and governance, in particular the work of the Strathclyde Centre for Environmental Law & Governance (SCELG) based within the School of Law.

SCELG aims to improve understanding of the trends, challenges and potential solutions across different interconnected areas of environmental law, including capacity-building for sustainable management of biodiversity, oceans, lands and freshwater, as well as for the fight against climate change. The intersection of international, regional, national and local levels of environmental governance, including the customary laws of indigenous peoples and local communities, and legal developments by private actors, is also a signifcant research specialism.

Explore Open Access research by SCELG or the School of Law. Or explore all of Strathclyde's Open Access research...

A single aqueous reference equilibrium constant for amide synthesis-hydrolysis

Ulijn, R.V. and Moore, B.D. and Janssen, A.E.M. and Halling, P.J. (2002) A single aqueous reference equilibrium constant for amide synthesis-hydrolysis. Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 2, 2002 (5). pp. 1024-1028. ISSN 1472-779X

Full text not available in this repository. Request a copy from the Strathclyde author

Abstract

Experimentally measured equilibrium constants at a given pH in part reflect the contributions of ionisation of acidic and basic groups present. These contributions can be isolated from the equilibrium constant by expressing all reactant concentrations in terms of the uncharged forms only. This article presents methods to calculate uncharged reference equilibrium constants for amide synthesis/hydrolysis reactions. For zwitterions in particular these methods are not always straightforward. It is explained how (microscopic) pK(a) values can be estimated where experimental values are not available. A large number of equilibrium data are analysed for hydrolysis or synthesis of protected and unprotected di- and tri-peptides, beta-lactam antibiotics, and acyl acids and amides. This reveals just how similar the reference equilibrium constants are when ionisation is properly accounted for (K-ref(0) = 10(3.6) M-1) regardless of the molecular form of the reactants involved.