Novel antagonists for proteinase-activated receptor 2 : Inhibition of cellular and vascular responses in vitro and in vivo

Kanke, T. and Kabeya, M. and Kubo, S. and Kondo, S. and Yasuoka, K. and Tagashira, J. and Ishiwata, H. and Saka, M. and Furuyama, T. and Nishiyama, T. and Doi, T. and Hattori, Y. and Kawabata, A. and Cunningham, M.R. and Plevin, R.J. (2009) Novel antagonists for proteinase-activated receptor 2 : Inhibition of cellular and vascular responses in vitro and in vivo. British Journal of Pharmacology, 158 (1). pp. 361-371. ISSN 1476-5381 (

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Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR(2)) is a G-protein coupled receptor associated with many pathophysiological functions. To date, the development of PAR(2) antagonists has been limited. Here, we identify a number of novel peptide-mimetic PAR(2) antagonists and demonstrate inhibitory effects on PAR(2)-mediated intracellular signalling pathways and vascular responses. The peptide-mimetic compound library based on the structures of PAR(2) agonist peptides were screened for inhibition of PAR(2)-induced calcium mobilisation in human keratinocytes. Representative compounds were further evaluated by radioligand binding and inhibition of NF kappa B transcriptional activity and IL-8 production. The vascular effects of the antagonists were assessed using in vitro and in vivo models. Two compounds, K-12940 and K-14585, significantly reduced SLIGKV-induced Ca2+ mobilisation in primary human keratinocytes. Both K-12940 and K-14585 exhibited competitive inhibition for the binding of a high-affinity radiolabelled PAR(2)-ligand, [H-3]-2-furoyl-LIGRL-NH2, to human PAR(2) with K-i values of 1.94 and 0.627 mu M respectively. NF kappa B reporter activity and IL-8 production were also significantly reduced. Furthermore, relaxation of rat-isolated aorta induced by SLIGRL-NH2 was inhibited competitively by K-14585. K-14585 also significantly lowered plasma extravasation in the dorsal skin of guinea pigs and reduced salivation in mice. K-12940 and K-14585 antagonized PAR(2) competitively, resulting in inhibition of PAR(2)-mediated signalling and physiological responses both in vitro and in vivo. These peptide-mimetic PAR(2) antagonists could be useful in evaluating PAR(2)-mediated biological events and might lead to a new generation of therapeutically useful antagonists.