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Open Access research with a European policy impact...

The Strathprints institutional repository is a digital archive of University of Strathclyde's Open Access research outputs. Strathprints provides access to thousands of Open Access research papers by Strathclyde researchers, including by researchers from the European Policies Research Centre (EPRC).

EPRC is a leading institute in Europe for comparative research on public policy, with a particular focus on regional development policies. Spanning 30 European countries, EPRC research programmes have a strong emphasis on applied research and knowledge exchange, including the provision of policy advice to EU institutions and national and sub-national government authorities throughout Europe.

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Relationship between rheological, textural and melting properties of dark chocolate as influenced by particle size distribution and composition

Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene and Paterson, A. and Fowler, Mark and Vieira, Joselio (2008) Relationship between rheological, textural and melting properties of dark chocolate as influenced by particle size distribution and composition. European Food Research and Technology, 227 (4). pp. 1215-1223. ISSN 1438-2377

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In dark chocolate, rheological properties during processing are influenced by particle size distribution (PSD), fat and lecithin contents with consequential effects on finished texture and melting characteristics. Multivariate regression, correlation and principal component analyses (PCA) were used to explore their interrelationships. A 4 × 3 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted with varying PSD [D 90 (90% finer than this size) of 18, 25, 35 and 50 μm], fat (25, 30 and 35%) and lecithin (0.3 and 0.5%). Rheological properties (yield stress and apparent viscosity), textural properties (firmness, index of viscosity and hardness) and melting index (duration) were respectively measured using shear rate-controlled rheometer, TA.HD Plus texture analyzer and differential scanning calorimetry. The PSD, fat and lecithin contents significantly influenced all rheological, textural properties and some melting characteristics. Increasing particles sizes reduced yield stress, apparent viscosity, firmness, index of viscosity, hardness and melting index of products with greatest influence with 25% fat and 0.3% lecithin, reduced with increasing fat and lecithin contents. There were high correlation (r = 0.78-0.99) and regression coefficients (R 2 = 0.59-0.99) among the rheological, textural and melting index indicating their high inter-relationships. In PCA, the rheological, textural and melting index accounted for >95% variance in the data.