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Open Access research with a European policy impact...

The Strathprints institutional repository is a digital archive of University of Strathclyde's Open Access research outputs. Strathprints provides access to thousands of Open Access research papers by Strathclyde researchers, including by researchers from the European Policies Research Centre (EPRC).

EPRC is a leading institute in Europe for comparative research on public policy, with a particular focus on regional development policies. Spanning 30 European countries, EPRC research programmes have a strong emphasis on applied research and knowledge exchange, including the provision of policy advice to EU institutions and national and sub-national government authorities throughout Europe.

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Docking, triggering, and biological activity of dynemicin A in DNA: a computational study

Tuttle, C.T. and Kraka, E. and Cremer, D. (2005) Docking, triggering, and biological activity of dynemicin A in DNA: a computational study. Journal of American Chemical Society, 127. pp. 9469-9484. ISSN 0002-7863

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Abstract

The triggering and biological activity of the naturally occurring enediyne dynemicin A (1) was investigated, both inside and outside the minor groove of the duplex 10-mer B-DNA sequence d(CTACTACTGG)·d(CCAGTAGTAG), using density functional theory (B3LYP with the 3-21G and 6-31G(d) basis set), BD(T)/cc-pVDZ (Brueckner doubles with a perturbative treatment of triple excitations), and the ONIOM approach. Enediyne 1 is triggered by NADPH in a strongly exothermic reaction (−88 kcal/mol), which involves a number of intermediate steps. Untriggered 1 has a high barrier for the Bergman cyclization (52 kcal/mol) that is lowered after triggering to 16.7 kcal/mol due to an epoxide opening and the accompanying strain relief. The Bergman reaction of triggered 1 is slightly exothermic by 2.8 kcal/mol. The singlet biradical formed in this reaction is kinetically stable (activation enthalpies of 19.5 and 21.8 kcal/mol for retro-Bergman reactions) and is as reactive as para-benzyne. The activity-relevant docking mode is an edge-on insertion into the minor groove, whereas the intercalation between base pairs, although leading to larger binding energies, excludes a triggering of 1 and the development of its biological activity. Therefore, an insertion−intercalation model is developed, which can explain all known experimental observations made for 1. On the basis of the insertion−intercalation model it is explained why large intercalation energies suppress the biological activity of dynemicin and why double-strand scission can be achieved only in a two-step mechanism that involves two enediyne molecules, explaining thus the high ratio of single-strand to double-strand scission observed for 1.