A bio-ionic liquid based self-healable and adhesive ionic hydrogel for the on-demand transdermal delivery of a chemotherapeutic drug

Pansuriya, Raviraj and Doutch, James and Parmar, Bhagyesh and Kumar Kailasa, Suresh and Mahmoudi, Najet and Hoskins, Clare and Malek, Naved I. (2024) A bio-ionic liquid based self-healable and adhesive ionic hydrogel for the on-demand transdermal delivery of a chemotherapeutic drug. Journal of Materials Chemistry B, 12 (22). pp. 5479-5495. ISSN 2050-750X (https://doi.org/10.1039/D4TB00510D)

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Abstract

The non-invasive nature and potential for sustained release make transdermal drug administration an appealing treatment option for cancer therapy. However, the strong barrier of the stratum corneum (SC) poses a challenge for the penetration of hydrophilic chemotherapy drugs such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Due to its biocompatibility and capacity to increase drug solubility and permeability, especially when paired with chemical enhancers, such as oleic acid (OA), which is used in this work, choline glycinate ([Cho][Gly]) has emerged as a potential substance for transdermal drug delivery. In this work, we examined the possibility of transdermal delivery of 5-FU for the treatment of breast cancer using an ionic hydrogel formulation consisting of [Cho][Gly] with OA. Small angle neutron scattering, rheological analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering analysis were used to characterize the ionic hydrogel. The non-covalent interactions present between [Cho][Gly] and OA were investigated by computational simulations and FTIR spectroscopy methods. When subjected to drug permeation using goat skin in a Franz diffusion cell, the hydrogel demonstrated sustained release of 5-FU and effective permeability in the order: [Cho][Gly]-OA gel > [Cho][Gly] > PBS (control). The hydrogel also demonstrated 92% cell viability after 48 hours for the human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT cells) as well as the normal human cell line L-132. The breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and the cervical cancer cell line HeLa were used to study cytotoxicity that was considerably affected by the 5-FU-loaded hydrogel. These results indicate the potential of the hydrogel as a transdermal drug delivery vehicle for the treatment of breast cancer.