Unveiling the metabolites underlying the skin anti-ageing properties of Cytinus hypocistis (L.) L. through a biochemometric approach

Silva, Ana Rita and Ayuso, Manuel and García, Pablo A. and Barros, Lillian and Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie (2024) Unveiling the metabolites underlying the skin anti-ageing properties of Cytinus hypocistis (L.) L. through a biochemometric approach. Phytomedicine, 129. 155685. ISSN 0944-7113 (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2024.155685)

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Background The genus Cytinus, recognised as one of the most enigmatic in the plant kingdom, has garnered attention for its bioactive potential, particularly its skin anti-ageing properties. Despite this recognition, much remains to be accomplished regarding deciphering and isolating its most active compounds. Hypothesis This study aimed to identify the compounds responsible for C. hypocistis skin anti-ageing potential. Methods Using multivariate analysis, a biochemometric approach was applied to identify the discriminant metabolites by integrating extracts' chemical profile (Liquid Chromatography–High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry, LC-HRMS) and bioactive properties. The identified bioactive metabolite was structurally elucidated by 1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Results Among the studied bioactivities, the anti-elastase results exhibited a significant variation among the samples from different years. After the biochemometric analysis, the compound 2,3:4,6-bis(hexahydroxydiphenoyl)glucose, with a molecular mass of 784.075 Da, was structurally elucidated as the discriminant feature responsible for the outstanding human neutrophil elastase inhibition. Remarkably, the subfraction containing this compound exhibited a tenfold improvement in neutrophil elastase inhibition efficacy compared to the crude extract; its effectiveness fell within the same range as SPCK, a potent irreversible neutrophil elastase inhibitor. Moreover, this subfraction displayed no cytotoxicity or phototoxicity and excellent efficacy for the tested anti-ageing properties. Conclusions Hydrolysable tannins were confirmed as the metabolites behind C. hypocistis skin anti-ageing properties, effectively mitigating critical molecular mechanisms that influence the phenotypically distinct ageing clinical manifestations. Pedunculagin was particularly effective in inhibiting neutrophil elastase, considered one of the most destructive enzymes in skin ageing.