In silico studies on the anti-acne potential of Garcinia mangostana xanthones and benzophenones

Blicharska, Natalia and Ben Ahmed, Ziyad and Jackson, Simon and Rotondo, Dino and Seidel, Veronique (2024) In silico studies on the anti-acne potential of Garcinia mangostana xanthones and benzophenones. Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung C, 79 (3-4). pp. 47-60. ISSN 0939-5075 (

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Garcinia mangostana fruits are used traditionally for inflammatory skin conditions, including acne. In this study, an in silico approach was employed to predict the interactions of G. mangostana xanthones and benzophenones with three proteins involved in the pathogenicity of acne, namely the human JNK1, Cutibacterium acnes KAS III and exo-β-1,4-mannosidase. Molecular docking analysis was performed using Autodock Vina. The highest docking scores and size-independent ligand efficiency values towards JNK1, C. acnes KAS III and exo-β-1,4-mannosidase were obtained for garcinoxanthone T, gentisein/2,4,6,3′,5′-pentahydroxybenzophenone and mangostanaxanthone VI, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the potential of xanthones and benzophenones to interact with C. acnes KAS III. Molecular dynamics simulations using GROMACS indicated that the JNK1-garcinoxanthone T complex had the highest stability of all ligand–protein complexes, with a high number of hydrogen bonds predicted to form between this ligand and its target. Petra/Osiris/Molinspiration (POM) analysis was also conducted to determine pharmacophore sites and predict the molecular properties of ligands influencing ADMET. All ligands, except for mangostanaxanthone VI, showed good membrane permeability. Garcinoxanthone T, gentisein and 2,4,6,3′,5′-pentahydroxybenzophenone were identified as the most promising compounds to explore further, including in experimental studies, for their anti-acne potential.