Diverse sustainable materials for the treatment of petroleum sludge and remediation of contaminated sites : a review

Jagaba, Ahmad Hussaini and Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed and Lawal, Ibrahim Mohammed and Aminu, Nasiru and Noor, Azmatullah and Al-dhawi, Baker Nasser Saleh and Usman, Abdullahi Kilaco and Batari, Ahmad and Abubakar, Sule and Birniwa, Abdullahi Haruna and Umaru, Ibrahim and Yakubu, Aminu Shehu (2022) Diverse sustainable materials for the treatment of petroleum sludge and remediation of contaminated sites : a review. Cleaner Waste Systems, 2. 100010. ISSN 2772-9125 (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clwas.2022.100010)

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Activities in the petroleum industry unavoidably generates huge amount of petroleum sludge that contain hazardous constituents. Numerous treatment techniques are proven to reduce toxicity, sludge volume, and extract petroleum products. Their efficiency is determined by the sludge properties. These treatment technologies can lessen the hazardous elements in sludge and alleviate their negative environmental and human health impacts. However, only a few, can strike a compromise between meeting strict environmental regulations and consuming notable quantity of water, energy, and chemicals. Now, there are no waste-free and cost-effective technologies available for petroleum sludge treatment. Therefore, this review was designed to highlight the several waste, plants, and other materials that have been utilized during petroleum sludge or petroleum contaminated site treatment for resource recovery and to ensure environmental safety. The application of various additives to remediate petroleum sludge contaminated areas has been proven to be a practical and environmentally beneficial alternative. The review found that reusing remediated soils for bioremediation activity on soil contaminated with oil sludge was efficient. The review further revealed that phytoremediation by sowing plants in the soil can remarkably boost microorganism's growth and TPH elimination rate. Also, in planted treatments using Zea mays L., Secale cereale L., Festuca arundinacea, Onobrychis viciifolia, Vertiver zizanioide, Cajanus cajan, Medicago sativa, Lolium perenne, Ttrifolium pratense etc. the most probable number were significantly higher than in unplanted treatments. It was also discovered that there is a commercial potential for the use of plants as sources of biosurfactant for use in accelerated TPHs degradation. Biosurfactant supplementation in the phytoremediation of metals and petroleum hydrocarbons co-contaminated soil was effective. The review suggests the use of composite materials for petroleum sludge treatment.