Delivering below the line in project management – A conceptual exploration

Ojiako, Udechukwu and Chipulu, Max and Maguire, Stuart (2013) Delivering below the line in project management – A conceptual exploration. Acta Commercii, 13 (1). a185. (

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Purpose: In this conceptual paper, the argument is put forward that due to the complexity that characterises most project environments, it is now time to examine alternative notions of project outcomes. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study is conceptual in nature and draws upon literature on complexity theory, expectations theories and stakeholder theory. Findings: The paper finds that there is a need to articulate a different assessment of project outcomes than has been traditionally undertaken. Such assessments may emphasise the perceptions of project clients formed through their experience of projects throughout the project lifecycle. Implications: This paper raises questions on whether the outcomes of projects are best ‘measured’ or ‘assessed’.