Short-term COVID-19 vaccine adverse effects among adults in Ekiti State, Nigeria

Folasade Dele-Ojo, Bolade and Adesokan, Adedapo and Fadare, Joseph Olusesan and Ajayi, Paul Oladapo and Raimi, Taiwo Hussean and Dada, Samuel Ayokunle and Dele, Ojo Owolabi and Ogunmodede, James Ayodele and Ipinimo, Tope Michael and Ariyo, Olumuyiwa Elijah and Godman, Brian (2024) Short-term COVID-19 vaccine adverse effects among adults in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Current Medical Research and Opinion, 40 (4). pp. 621-627. ISSN 0300-7995 (

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Background: The safety of the COVID-19 vaccines has been a topic of concern globally. This issue of safety is associated with vaccine hesitancy due to concerns about the adverse effects of the vaccines. Consequently, this study determined the short-term safety profile of the Oxford/AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study conducted between May and July 2021 among individuals who had received the first dose of the first batch of the Oxford/AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine at Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital (EKSUTH), Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. A Google form was used to collect data on the adverse effects of the vaccine. Results: Out of over 1,000 individuals who were approached, 758 respondents completed the study. A large percentage (57.4%) of those who received the vaccines were healthcare workers. Adverse effects were reported in 70.8% of the participants with most manifesting on the first day of the vaccination. The predominant adverse effects were injection site soreness (28.5%), followed by fatigue (18.7%) and muscle pain (8.6%). There was no report of severe adverse effects such as anaphylactic reactions, thrombosis, myocarditis, transient myelitis, or Guillen-Barre syndrome. Conclusion: This study found that self-reported adverse effects of the Oxford/AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine were mild and short in duration. This outcome has promising implications for improving COVID-19 vaccine uptake in the immediate environment and Nigeria.