CFD simulation of gas dispersion at hydrogen bunkering station

Choi, Suwon and Jeong, Byongug (2023) CFD simulation of gas dispersion at hydrogen bunkering station. Journal of International Maritime Safety, Environmental Affairs, and Shipping, 7 (4). 2261350. ISSN 2572-5084 (

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This research is to simulate hydrogen leakage at bunker station with various wind directions and velocities using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model to understand hydrogen dispersion behaviour and provide general guidelines to establish risk prevent measures and mitigations at early design phase. This case study examines hydrogen plume behavior in various wind conditions, focusing on horizontal and vertical dispersion as well as mean travel distance over time. Regardless of wind direction, hydrogen disperses in alignment with the wind. As time progresses post-leakage, the plume elongates in the wind's longitudinal direction and contracts vertically, maintaining a consistent shape. Wind direction and the direction of hydrogen release notably influence dispersion patterns. When the wind aligns vertically with the release point, hydrogen plume distance increases with higher wind speeds. Conversely, when wind opposes the release direction, plume length tends to decrease at high speeds. Intriguingly, the maximum distance of 27.85 m occurs when wind and leak directions are orthogonal at 180°. For wind speeds up to 5 m/s, all wind directions show a similar increase in plume distance. However, at 7 m/s, scenarios with horizontal, perpendicular wind directions exhibit a distinct change. Analyzing hydrogen dispersion aids in establishing safety criteria and risk mitigation distances for hydrogen leakages in bunker stations during the early design phase.