Novel manufacturing of multi-material component by hybrid friction stir channeling

Karvinen, Heikki and Mehta, Kush P. and Vilaça, Pedro (2023) Novel manufacturing of multi-material component by hybrid friction stir channeling. CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, 45. pp. 271-284. ISSN 1755-5817 (

[thumbnail of Karvinen-etal-CIRP-JMST-2023-Novel-manufacturing-of-multi-material-component-by-hybrid]
Text. Filename: Karvinen_etal_CIRP_JMST_2023_Novel_manufacturing_of_multi_material_component_by_hybrid.pdf
Final Published Version
License: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 logo

Download (21MB)| Preview


The hybrid friction stir channeling (HC) is a recent manufacturing technique, reinforcing the broad range of solutions provided by the technological domain of solid-state friction stir-based welding and processing. HC enables the simultaneous welding of multiple components and the sub-surface channeling within the desired region at the stir zone. HC provides new demanding solutions having free path sub-surface channeling and welding for multi-material components with optimized physical and chemical performances. In the present investigation, a multi-material system consisting of 8 mm thick Al-Mg alloy (AA5083) and 3 mm thick oxygen free copper (Cu-OF) was processed by HC. A specially designed tool consists of the probe’s body features that steer materials extraction and the probe’s tip features that generate materials mixing was applied to produce sub-surface channel at AA5083, along with its simultaneous welding to Cu-OF material. Visual examination of the AA5083′s surface processed by the shoulder, cross-sectional dimensioning, optical 3D scanning of the internal surfaces of the channel, optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electron backscatter diffraction and micro-hardness measurements were applied to investigate the results. The successful application of HC to manufacture multi-material Al-Cu component is demonstrated. A large sub-surface quasi rectangular channel with 9.6 mm in width per 3.3 mm in height was produced in the AA5083 rib along with defect free welding to thin Cu-OF plate at just below the channel region multi-material. The resulted sub-surface channel was consisted of unique wall surface features, with non-uniform and non-oriented surface roughness, suitable to activate turbulent fluid flow. The microhardness field depicts a higher-strength domain of the stirred material, at the ceiling of the sub-surface channel in comparison with the base materials. The welding zone comprises a metal matrix composite structure with Al-Cu inter-mixing and a mechanical hooking from Cu into the Al matrix. The metallurgical features of the weld stirred zone were analyzed, with an interpretation of Al-Cu phases, and solid solution of Al and Cu in each other. In this zone, Cu-rich lamellae regions are dispersed within the Al-matrix, presenting thin layers of discontinuous intermetallic compounds. The effective potential of manufacturing multi-material component for applicability in thermal management system is demonstrated.