Global Entrepreneurship Monitor : Scotland Report 2022/23

Mwaura, Samuel and Sahasranamam, Sreevas and Hart, Mark and Bonner, Karen and Prashar, Neha and Ri, Anastasia and Levie, Jonathan (2023) Global Entrepreneurship Monitor : Scotland Report 2022/23. University of Strathclyde, Glasgow. (

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--Background-- In 2022, the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) research consortium measured rates of entrepreneurship by undertaking structured interviews with around 170,000 adults across 49 countries. Within the UK, 10, 143 adults participated in the GEM Adult Population Survey (APS) in 2022. This report mainly focuses on Scotland, comprising 1,582 participants in the adult working-age bracket (18-64) from an overall sample of 2,020 adults (including those over 65) that took part in the APS. This monitoring report details GEM measures of entrepreneurial attitudes, activity, and aspirations in Scotland and compares the results across the four home nations of the UK. We also explore regional differences between the five ITL2 regions within Scotland, including Southern Scotland, West Central, Eastern, North Eastern Scotland, and the Highlands and Islands. --Entrepreneurial Activity-- Total early-stage Entrepreneurial Activity or TEA (the sum of the nascent entrepreneurship rate and the new business owner-manager rate - without double counting) in Scotland in 2022 was 8.8% against a UK average of 11% in 2022. This was down a notch from 9.5% in 2021 but the change was not statistically significant meaning TEA rates in Scotland have remained broadly the same between 2020 and 2022. Across the home nations, TEA was highest in England at 11.5% which was significantly higher than Scotland (8.8%) and Wales (7.8%), and within the margin of error for Northern Ireland (8.7%) due to a smaller sample size for Northern Ireland. Within Scotland, TEA is nominally highest in the West Central region (10.5%) although there are no statistically significant differences between the regions in 2022. --Demographics-- Both male and female TEA rates saw a minor drop to 10.5% and 7.2% respectively. Female to male TEA ratio in Scotland remains unchanged from 2021 at 68%, while the UK ratio increased from 73% to 79%. This suggests that female TEA rates in the rest of the UK improved while Scotland’s remain standstill. Among TEA entrepreneurs, males are significantly more likely to start a business "to build great wealth or a very high income". 67% of male TEA entrepreneurs indicated this was a key motive compared to 41.7% of females. Other motives were more or less similar between genders. Overall regional TEA rates within Scotland show some regional differences, including by gender, although mostly within the margin of error due to small sample sizes in the regions. Early-stage entrepreneurial activity continues to be driven largely by younger entrepreneurs. However, the TEA rate for the 18-24 age group saw a three-point drop (from 13.3% in 2021 to 10.4% in 2022), with 25-34s holding steady at around 12%. Other age groups also saw small drops in TEA. Ethnicity continues to show a strong association with TEA with the non-white population at 17%, double the white TEA which stood at 8.5% in 2022. The non-white TEA in Scotland has now seemingly caught up to both the UK non-white rate and the pre-pandemic non-white TEA in Scotland. In Scotland, there are no significant differences in rates of total early-stage entrepreneurial activity among the various deprivation quintiles.


Mwaura, Samuel ORCID logoORCID:, Sahasranamam, Sreevas ORCID logoORCID:, Hart, Mark, Bonner, Karen, Prashar, Neha, Ri, Anastasia and Levie, Jonathan;

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