The intersection of fuel and transport policy in Scotland : a review of policy, definitions and metrics

Boyd, Keran Sarah and Calvillo, Christian and Mueller, Tanja and Mu, Xiaoyi and Zhu, Tong (2023) The intersection of fuel and transport policy in Scotland : a review of policy, definitions and metrics. Energies, 16 (13). 4978. ISSN 1996-1073 (

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This paper is a literature review of fuel and transport poverty in the U.K. with a focus on contextualising this challenge in Scotland. Building on the discussion in the literature, we see that the objective of policy interventions should be to provide a mechanism for identifying vulnerable households. First, we analyse the definitions of fuel, energy, and transport poverty and observe that definitions in policy have been used to limit the scope of the issue to make it more easily addressable. In contrast, academic research points out that fuel poverty should not only encompass all energy use, including household heating, but that transport poverty should be considered under the same umbrella as the drivers overlap. We then consider the indicators used to measure fuel and transport poverty, finding that the thresholds set are arbitrary and only measure one of many possible drivers, namely expenditure. Through an analysis of the drivers, it is clear that both fuel and transport poverty are complex multidimensional challenges requiring a combination of indicators to allow the policy to accurately identify vulnerable households.


Boyd, Keran Sarah, Calvillo, Christian ORCID logoORCID:, Mueller, Tanja ORCID logoORCID:, Mu, Xiaoyi and Zhu, Tong;