The co-development of offshore wind and hydrogen in the UK – a case study of Milford Haven South Wales

Fan, Fulin and Nwobu, John and Campos-Gaona, David (2023) The co-development of offshore wind and hydrogen in the UK – a case study of Milford Haven South Wales. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2507 (1). 012011. ISSN 1742-6596 (

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Green hydrogen produced from renewable energy resources can not only contribute to the decarbonisation of different energy sectors, but also serve as a carrier for long-distance delivery of renewable generation, offering a cost-effective way to exploit the renewables far from electrical grids. To facilitate the co-development of offshore wind and hydrogen, the paper develops a modelling framework to dispatch power and hydrogen flows across dedicated offshore wind hydrogen production systems to meet onshore hydrogen demands while keeping similar state of charge levels between multiple systems. Then the hydrogen supply to shore and the system investments and ongoing costs are discounted to their present values to calculate the levelised cost of hydrogen, which is minimised by the particle swarm optimsiation algorithm to suggest the best capacities of hydrogen system components including converters, desalination devices, electrolysers, compressors and storage assets. The proposed modelling framework is tested based on a case study at Milford Haven South Wales which is evaluated to have massive offshore wind resources in the Celtic Sea and comparable demands for hydrogen by 2040. The optimisation results are presented based on the techno-economic input parameters projected for 2030 and 2050 scenarios and discussed alongside the influences of technology advances on the system optimisation and resulting metrics including the levelised costs of hydrogen, net present values and potential levels of green hydrogen supply to Milford Haven.