Probing bulk electron temperature via x-ray emission in a solid density plasma

Makur, K and Ramakrishna, B and Krishnamurthy, S and Kakolee, K F and Kar, S and Cerchez, M and Prasad, R and Markey, K and Quinn, M N and Yuan, X H and Green, J S and Scott, R H H and McKenna, P and Osterholz, J and Willi, O. and Norreys, P A and Borghesi, M and Zepf, M (2023) Probing bulk electron temperature via x-ray emission in a solid density plasma. Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 65 (4). 045005. ISSN 0741-3335 (

[thumbnail of Makur-etal-PPCF-2023-Probing-bulk-electron-temperature-via-x-ray-emission-in-a-solid-density-plasma]
Text. Filename: Makur_etal_PPCF_2023_Probing_bulk_electron_temperature_via_x_ray_emission_in_a_solid_density_plasma.pdf
Final Published Version
License: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 logo

Download (1MB)| Preview


Bulk electron temperatures are calculated for thin Cu targets irradiated by the petawatt class Vulcan laser, from the Kα yield obtained using highly oriented pyrolytic graphite crystals. Cu-Kα emission studies have been used to probe the bulk electron temperature. A 30–80 eV core temperature extends homogeneously over distances up to ten times the laser focal spot size. Energy shifting has been observed due to different ionization states produced for different temperatures in the plasma. Polarization dependencies of plasma temperature are observed through the production of x-rays in different targets. 2D PIC simulations were performed to measure the polarization dependency of bulk electron temperature, which supports our experimental results. This paper could be of importance in understanding the different behavior of laser coupling at different polarizations and their role in x-ray production.