Imaging drug uptake by bioorthogonal stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

Tipping, William J. and Lee, Martin and Serrels, Alan and Brunton, Valerie G. and Hulme, Alison N. (2017) Imaging drug uptake by bioorthogonal stimulated Raman scattering microscopy. Chemical Science, 8 (8). pp. 5606-5615. ISSN 2041-6539 (

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Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy in tandem with bioorthogonal Raman labelling strategies is set to revolutionise the direct visualisation of intracellular drug uptake. Rational evaluation of a series of Raman-active labels has allowed the identification of highly active labels which have minimal perturbation on the biological efficacy of the parent drug. Drug uptake has been correlated with markers of cellular composition and cell cycle status, and mapped across intracellular structures using dual-colour and multi-modal imaging. The minimal phototoxicity and low photobleaching associated with SRS microscopy has enabled real-time imaging in live cells. These studies demonstrate the potential for SRS microscopy in the drug development process.