Wind-farm and hydrogen-storage co-location system optimization for dynamic frequency response in the UK

Fan, Fulin and Skellern, Shanay and Campos-Gaona, David and Nwobu, John (2023) Wind-farm and hydrogen-storage co-location system optimization for dynamic frequency response in the UK. Clean Energy, 7 (1). pp. 157-173. ISSN 2515-4230 (

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The continuous development of hydrogen-electrolyser and fuel-cell technologies not only reduces their investment and operating costs but also improves their technical performance to meet fast-acting requirements of electrical grid balancing services such as frequency-response services. In order to project the feasibility of co-locating a hydrogen-storage system with a wind farm for the dynamic regulation frequency-response provision in Great Britain, this paper develops a modelling framework to coordinate the wind export and frequency responses to the main grid and manage the interaction of the electrolyser, compressor, storage tank and fuel cell within the hydrogen-storage system by respecting the market mechanisms and the balance and conversion of power and hydrogen flows. Then the revenue of frequency-response service provision and a variety of costs induced by the hydrogen-storage system are translated into the net profit of the co-location system, which is maximized by optimizing the capacities of hydrogen-storage-system components, hydrogen-storage levels that guide the hydrogen restoration via operational baselines and the power interchange between a wind-farm and hydrogen-storage system, as well as the capacities tendered for low- and high-frequency dynamic regulation services. The developed modelling framework is tested based on a particular 432-MW offshore wind farm in Great Britain combined with the techno-economics of electrolysers and fuel cells projected for 2030 and 2050 scenarios. The optimized system configuration and operation are compared between different operating scenarios and discussed alongside the prospect of applying hydrogen-storage systems for frequency-response provision.