Graph-based feature weight optimisation and classification of continuous seismic sensor array recordings

Li, J. and Stankovic, L. and Stankovic, Vladimir and Pytharouli, S. and Yang, C. and Shi, Q. (2022) Graph-based feature weight optimisation and classification of continuous seismic sensor array recordings. Sensors, 23 (1). 243. ISSN 1424-8220 (

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Slope instabilities caused by heavy rainfall, man-made activity or earthquakes can be characterised by seismic events. To minimise mortality and infrastructure damage, a good understanding of seismic signal properties characterising slope failures is therefore crucial to classify seismic events recorded from continuous recordings effectively. However, there are limited contributions towards understanding the importance of feature selection for the classification of seismic signals from continuous noisy recordings from multiple channels/sensors. This paper first proposes a novel multi-channel event-detection scheme based on Neyman-Pearson lemma and Multi-channel Coherency Migration (MCM) on the stacked signal across multi-channels. Furthermore, this paper adapts graph-based feature weight optimisation as feature selection, exploiting the signal's physical characteristics, to improve signal classification. Specifically, we alternatively optimise the feature weight and classification label with graph smoothness and semidefinite programming (SDP). Experimental results show that with expert interpretation, compared with the conventional short-time average/long-time average (STA/LTA) detection approach, our detection method identified 614 more seismic events in five days. Furthermore, feature selection, especially via graph-based feature weight optimisation, provides more focused feature sets with less than half of the original number of features, at the same time enhancing the classification performance; for example, with feature selection, the Graph Laplacian Regularisation classifier (GLR) raised the rockfall and slide quake sensitivities to 92% and 88% from 89% and 85%, respectively.