Monkeypox lineages amid the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic : a global public health concern - correspondence

Mohapatra, Ranjan K. and Kandi, Venkataramana and Seidel, Veronique and Sarangi, Ashish K. and Mishra, Snehasish and Rabaan, Ali A. and Alhumaid, Saad and Mutair, Abbas Al and Dhama, Kuldeep (2022) Monkeypox lineages amid the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic : a global public health concern - correspondence. International Journal of Surgery, 107. 106968. ISSN 1743-9191 (

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Dear Editor, The illness caused by the Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is similar to smallpox, but less transmissible and usually less severe. It spreads from infected animals, humans, and contaminated surfaces [1,2]. MPXV was first detected in laboratory monkeys in 1958. Its first human case, a child from the Congo basin country Zaire now known as the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), occurred in 1970 [3,4]. Since then, hMPX cases have been continuously reported, with short outbreaks within different countries of Central and Western Africa, particularly in regions where immunity to smallpox was no longer prevalent. Previous smallpox vaccination has been reported to provide 85% protection against MPX infection as well as reduce the severity of MPX symptoms in infected individuals [1]. As reported, the secondary MPX infection rate in unvaccinated individuals has been estimated as 9.3% (compared to 37–88% for smallpox). The case-fatality rate (CFR) has been observed to be higher in unvaccinated individuals with severe disease manifestations in children younger than five.