Micro-fabricated caesium vapor cell with 5 mm optical path length

Dyer, T. and Ingleby, S.J. and Dunare, C. and Dodds, K. and Lomax, P. and Griffin, P.F. and Riis, E. (2022) Micro-fabricated caesium vapor cell with 5 mm optical path length. Journal of Applied Physics, 132 (20). 204401. ISSN 0021-8979 (https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0125490)

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Micro-fabricated vapor cells have applications in a number of emerging quantum technology-based devices including miniaturized atomic magnetometers, atomic clocks, and frequency references for laser systems. Increasing the cell optical path length (OPL) and smallest cell dimension are normally desirable to increase the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and minimize the de-polarization rate due to collisions between atomic or molecular species and the cell walls. This paper presents a fully wafer-level scalable fabrication process to manufacture vapor cells with dimensions approaching those of glass-blown cells. The fabrication process is described, and spectroscopic measurements (optical absorption and magnetic resonance) are reported. A magnetic resonance linewidth of 350 Hz is demonstrated, and this is the smallest linewidth reported to date for a micro-fabricated vapor cell.