Current understanding of novel coronavirus : molecular pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment approaches

Jha, Niraj Kumar and Jeyaraman, Madhan and Rachamalla, Mahesh and Ojha, Shreesh and Dua, Kamal and Chellappan, Dinesh Kumar and Muthu, Sathish and Sharma, Ankur and Jha, Saurabh Kumar and Jain, Rashmi and Jeyaraman, Naveen and GS, Prajwal and Satyam, Rohit and Khan, Fahad and Pandey, Pratibha and Verma, Nitin and Singh, Sandeep Kumar and Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep and Dolpuria, Sunny and Ruokolainen, Janne and Kesari, Kavindra Kumar (2021) Current understanding of novel coronavirus : molecular pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment approaches. Immuno, MDPI, 1 (1). pp. 30-66. (

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An outbreak of "Pneumonia of Unknown Etiology" occurred in Wuhan, China, in late December 2019. Later, the agent factor was identified and coined as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the disease was named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In a shorter period, this newly emergent infection brought the world to a standstill. On 11 March 2020, the WHO declared COVID-19 as a pandemic. Researchers across the globe have joined their hands to investigate SARS-CoV-2 in terms of pathogenicity, transmissibility, and deduce therapeutics to subjugate this infection. The researchers and scholars practicing different arts of medicine are on an extensive quest to come up with safer ways to curb the pathological implications of this viral infection. A huge number of clinical trials are underway from the branch of allopathy and naturopathy. Besides, a paradigm shift on cellular therapy and nano-medicine protocols has to be optimized for better clinical and functional outcomes of COVID-19-affected individuals. This article unveils a comprehensive review of the pathogenesis mode of spread, and various treatment modalities to combat COVID-19 disease.