Tissue engineered scaffolds for mimetic autografts

Romero-Torrecilla, Juan Antonio and Riera, Luis and Valdés-Fernández, José and López-Martínez, Tania and Ripalda-Cemboráin, Purificación and Jayawarna, Vineetha and Childs, Peter and Salmeron-Sanchez, Manuel and Prósper-Cardoso, Felipe and Granero-Moltó, Froilán (2020) Tissue engineered scaffolds for mimetic autografts. Bone Reports, 13 (100386). p. 11. P036. ISSN 2352-1872 (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2020.100386)

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Introduction: Despite its regenerative capacity, bone healing can be compromised, leading to delayed fracture regeneration and nonunion. Due to the scarcity of bone tissue that can be used as autograft, novel tissue engineering strategies arise as a promising solution by using biocompatible materials. Methods: Our objective is the development of engineered autografts capable of efficiently treat fracture nonunion. For this purpose, we designed polycaprolactone (PCL) autografts surrounded by a porous membrane mimicking periosteum. To assess their regenerative capacity, these scaffolds were tested in critical size femur defect for ten weeks carrying out μCT and histological analysis. Additionally, we are focusing on the generation of PCL biocomposites, such as poly ethyl-acrylate (PEA) covered PCL membranes which can enhance morphogen functionalization, reducing the effective BMP dose. Results: At the mCT level, structural mimetic PCL scaffolds, showed no significant difference in bone healing (Empty group, 11.47±4.93 mm3; MA, 14.95±3.09 mm3, p=0.1711). Histological analysis demonstrates that MEW PCL mimicking periosteum enhances bone growth, but insufficient for successful healing. However, once functionalized with PEA and BMP-2, these implants showed highly improved regeneration (CTL group, 11,47±4,93 mm3; BMP-2 group, 49,24±13,20 mm3, p = 0.0001). Figure 1. These implants were loaded with BMP-2 solutions previously studied in vitro to estimate morphogen dose, which resulted in 55.64±14.83 ng (n=6). Conclusions and discussion: In conclusion, PEA functionalized mimetic autografts show an important increase in bone healing, enhancing BMP-2 effects, which provide representative regeneration with a 100 folds lower dose than typically described in literature.