A high-k mm-wave scattering diagnostic for measuring binormal electron scale turbulence on MAST-U

Speirs, D. C. and Phelps, A. D.R. and Hall-Chen, V. H. and Field, A. R. and Vann, R. G.L. and Ronald, K.; Helfenstein, P. and Reiffers, M., eds. (2021) A high-k mm-wave scattering diagnostic for measuring binormal electron scale turbulence on MAST-U. In: 47th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics, EPS 2021. 47th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics, EPS 2021 . European Physical Society (EPS), ESP, pp. 533-536. ISBN 9781713837046 (http://ocs.ciemat.es/EPS2021PAP/pdf/P2.1084.pdf)

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Plasma turbulence plays a key role in determining the spatial-temporal evolution of plasmas in astrophysical, geophysical and laboratory contexts. In particular, turbulence on disparate spatial and temporal scales limits the level of confinement achievable in magnetic confinement fusion experiments and therefore limits the viability of sustainable fusion power. MAST-U is a well-equipped experimental facility having instruments to measure ion-scale turbulence and electron scale turbulence at the plasma edge. However, measurement of turbulence at electron scales in the core is problematic, especially in H mode. This gap in measurement capability has provided the motivation to develop a high-k microwave scattering diagnostic for MAST-U*. The turbulence is expected to be most significant in the binormal direction with scale ranges expected of order (k ρe ~ 0.1 -> 0.5) in the confinement region of the core plasma (0.5 < r/a < 1). We therefore propose a binormal high-k scattering diagnostic operating with near-perpendicular incidence to the magnetic field through the scattering region. In this paper, the results of Gaussian wave optics and beam-tracing calculations [1] are presented that demonstrate the predicted spatial and wavenumber resolution of the diagnostic along with the sensitivity of the measurement, assuming a probe beam crossing close to the diameter of the MAST-U vessel in the equatorial mid-plane. The analysis considers the variation of magnetic pitch angle ( = tan-1 (B / B)) as a function of plasma radius and its effect on the instrument selectivity function F(r) as a function of scattering location and kρe. An illustration of the proposed scattering geometry with respect to the MAST-U crosssectional schematic is given in figure 1.