The Impact of Distributed Generation in Scotland (on the Energy System, to Consumers and to National Emission Levels)

Robertson, Elizabeth Margaret and Anderson, Lucy and Galloway, Stuart (2012) The Impact of Distributed Generation in Scotland (on the Energy System, to Consumers and to National Emission Levels). In: CIGRE Canada Conference on Power Systems, 2012-09-24 - 2012-09-26, Hilton Montreal Bonaventure.

[thumbnail of Robertson-etal-CIGRE2012-The-impact-distributed-generation-scotland-energy-system-consumers-national-emission-levels]
Text. Filename: Robertson_etal_CIGRE2012_The_impact_distributed_generation_scotland_energy_system_consumers_national_emission_levels.pdf
Accepted Author Manuscript

Download (429kB)| Preview


In 2011 the Scottish Government committed to a programme that by the year 2020 100% of electricity consumed in Scotland is to be from renewable, zero-carbon sources. This target alongside UK and European targets mean that there is now a drive towards the installation of large and small scale renewable generation. In the UK, domestic consumption accounts for 30% of the total electricity. Consequently, there is a need for more active participation in the energy sector from domestic customers. Secondly, in Scotland, and the UK, with large scale penetrations of Distributed Generation (DG) there will be a transition from the current 'top down' energy distribution system to a newer approach. This paper has investigated the feasibility of high penetrations of DG in the energy system in Scotland, as well as the advantages storage facilities can offer to it. Results have demonstrated the influence that the change in system use will have on regional and local emission levels and the final costs to consumers. Results have also demonstrated the need for reinforcements to the system as well as an inclusion for local electrical storage. The modelling tool SREN is used to investigate the cost implications between the East and West coast of Scotland systems and the different impact that large scale DER penetration has in the two Scottish regions. The work then goes on to show that the East and West Coast systems will have different generation mixes and curtailment issues due to the system design and geographic differences between the two regions. The HESA model is then used to look at one east coast Local Education Authority (LEA) area, Angus. The Angus system is studied in 2050 under zero- and high-penetration DER trajectories under a multitude of conditions. Results demonstrate the negative impact to total carbon emissions and cost to consumers that a lack of system reinforcement would have. Analysis also shows that there is real need for local electrical storage units to allow locally generated renewable energy to be utilised in-situ. Finally the multiple energy carrier nature of HESA is used to demonstrate that it is the direct emissions from households from gas-fired heating technologies are the main contributor to total emissions and that it is therefore necessary to invest in research related to lower-carbon heating technologies for the home.