Knowledge, attitudes and practices of community pharmacy professionals on poultry antimicrobial dispensing, use and resistance in Zambia : implications on antibiotic stewardship and WHO AWaRe classification of antibiotics

Mudenda, Steward and Mukosha, Moses and Godman, Brian and Fadare, Joseph and Malama, Sydney and Munyeme, Musso and Hikaambo, Christabel Nang'andu and Kalungia, Aubrey Chiconyi and Hamachila, Audrey and Kainga, Henson and Bumbangi, Flavien Nsoni and Daka, Victor and Mfune, Ruth Lindizyani and Mainda, Geoffrey and Mufwambi, Webrod and Mpundu, Prudence and Kasanga, Maisa and Saad, Shereen Ahmed Mohammed and Muma, John Bwalya (2022) Knowledge, attitudes and practices of community pharmacy professionals on poultry antimicrobial dispensing, use and resistance in Zambia : implications on antibiotic stewardship and WHO AWaRe classification of antibiotics. Antibiotics, 11 (9). 1210. ISSN 2079-6382 (https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11091210)

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Abstract

Globally, the inappropriate dispensing and use of antibiotics in animals has contributed to the development of bacterial antimicrobial resistance (AMR). In Zambia, there is insufficient information among community pharmacy professionals on antibiotic use (ABU) and AMR in food-producing animals. This study assessed community pharmacy professionals’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding poultry antibiotic dispensing, use, and bacterial AMR in the Lusaka district of Zambia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 178 community pharmacy professionals between February and April 2022 using a semi-structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Stata version 17. Of the total participants (n = 178), 51.1% (n = 91) were pharmacists. The most dispensed antibiotic was oxytetracycline, a Watch antibiotic, mainly without prescriptions. Good knowledge of ABU and AMR was associated with work experience for more than one year (p = 0.016), while good practices were associated with male gender (p = 0.039) and work experience of more than one year (p = 0.011). The study found moderate knowledge, positive attitudes, and moderate practices of pharmacy professionals on poultry ABU and AMR. There was high dispensing of poultry antibiotics without prescriptions, which calls for strict implementation of antimicrobial stewardship and surveillance programs in poultry production in Zambia to reduce AMR.