Leaching of PAHs from rubber modified asphalt pavements

Fathollahi, Alireza and Makoundou, Christina and Coupe, Stephen J. and Sangiorgi, Cesare (2022) Leaching of PAHs from rubber modified asphalt pavements. Science of the Total Environment, 826. 153983. ISSN 1879-1026 (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.153983)

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The present study aimed to, for the first time, quantify the total content of 16 priority EPA PAHs in end-of-life tyre derived crumb rubber granulates and various manufactured rubberised asphalt mix designs. After identifying the availability of 16 EPA PAHs, the leaching behaviour of rubberised asphalt specimens, were evaluated using the Dynamic Surface Leaching Test (DSLT) based on CEN/TS 16637-2:2014 standard. This was prior to modelling the release mechanisms of PAHs by utilizing a mathematical diffusion-controlled leaching model. According to the results, the total content of 16 EPA PAHs in crumb rubber granulates ranged between 0.061 and 8.322 μg/g, which were associated with acenaphthene and pyrene, respectively. The total content of PAHs in rubberised asphalt specimens varied between 0.019 and 4.992 μg/g depending on the volume of crumb rubber granulates in the asphalt concrete mix design, and type of binder. Results of the leaching experiments revealed that the highest leached PAHs were benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene and naphthalene with a 64-days cumulative release per specimen surface area > 1 μg/m2. Acenaphthylene, fluoranthene, fluorene and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene were released in cumulative concentrations between 0.1 and 1 μg/m2. The PAHs with a cumulative release potential below 0.1 μg/m2 during DSLT were benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene and chrysene. The diffusion coefficients, which were calculated by mathematical modelling of DSLT data, revealed that the leaching process of 16 EPA PAHs from surface of rubberised asphalt concrete mix designs fitted all the criteria set by the NEN 7345 standard for diffusion-controlled leaching during all stages of leaching experiments.