Transformative governance for ocean biodiversity

Erinosho, Bolanle and Hamukuaya, Hashali and Lajaunie, Claire and Malinde S. N., Alana and Lennan, Mitchell Lancaster and Mazzega, Pierre and Morgera, Elisa and Snow, Bernadette; Visseren-Hamakers, Ingrid J. and Kok, Marcel T. J., eds. (2022) Transformative governance for ocean biodiversity. In: Transforming Biodiversity Governance. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK., 313–338. ISBN 9781108856348 (

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The ocean’s enormity and depth are illustrated by the limited ability of humankind to comprehend it. The current science and policy seascape remains largely fragmented, and as a result the integrity of marine life and the well-being of those (human and nonhuman) dependent on a healthy ocean is being negatively impacted. Fragmented governance is an indirect driver of ocean biodiversity loss due to its inability to provide synergistic solutions to address simultaneously multiple direct drivers for such loss (overfishing, land-based and marine pollution, and climate change). This governance problem is well known (Kelly et al., 2019; Watson-Wright and Valdés, 2018), and to some extent it is being addressed in ongoing international negotiations on an international instrument on marine biodiversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (A/RES/72/249, 2017).