Applications of 3D printing in cancer

Serrano, Dolores R and Terres, Maria C and Lalatsa, Aikaterini (2018) Applications of 3D printing in cancer. Journal of 3D Printing in Medicine, 2 (3). (

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The tumour heterogeneity and interindividual variability is a major problem when treating cancer as every patient responds in a different way to the current drug therapies. 3D printing is a tool that can hamper the issues faced in cancer patients allowing for individualisation of treatment by the production of in vitro models with micro-environments mimicking more closely real cancer conditions facilitating complex therapies. Further improvements are required, for example the development of biocompatible bioinks or need for vascularisation. The journey from bench to bedside is challenging from the regulatory point of view where the establishment of manufacturing guidelines, quality systems and safety of use and administration of personalised medicines remains unclear. This review will provide an insight in the major applications of 3D printing in cancer both in the development of in vitro cancer models as well as personalised medicines for cancer patients focused on hydrogels and therapeutic implants.