Poissonian twin-beam states and the effect of symmetrical photon subtraction in loss estimations

Samantaray, N. and Matthews, J. C. F. and Rarity, J. G. (2021) Poissonian twin-beam states and the effect of symmetrical photon subtraction in loss estimations. Physical Review A, 104 (6). 063718. ISSN 2469-9926 (https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.104.063718)

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We have devised an experimentally realizable model generating twin-beam states whose individual beam photon statistics are varied from thermal to Poissonian (by temporal mode averaging) keeping the nonclassical mode correlation intact. We have studied the usefulness of these states for loss measurement by considering three different estimators, comparing with the correlated thermal twin-beam states generated from spontaneous parametric down conversion or four-wave mixing. We then incorporated the photon subtraction operation into the model and demonstrated their performance in loss estimations with respect to unsubtracted states at both fixed squeezing and per photon exposure of the absorbing sample. For instance, at fixed squeezing, for two photon subtraction, up to three times advantage is found. An unexpected result in the latter case is that in some operating regimes the photon subtraction scheme can also give up to 20% advantage over the correlated thermal beam result and no advantages are obtained when the statistics of each beam turns to Poissonian. We have also made a comparative study of these estimators for finding the best measurement for loss estimations. We present results for all the values of the model parameters changing the statistics of twin-beam states from thermal to