The many sizes and characters of the Blue Economy

Graziano, Marcello and Alexander, Karen A. and McGrane, Scott J. and Allan, Grant J. and Lema, Evangelia (2022) The many sizes and characters of the Blue Economy. Ecological Economics, 196. 107419. ISSN 0921-8009 (

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This article analyses the economic size and resilience of five established definitions of the Blue Economy across two geographical locations: Scotland (UK) and Michigan (USA). The article analyses sector-level employment, labor productivity and Gross Value Added (GVA) data, and uses graphical representations to highlight the differences in conceptualizing the Blue Economy in ways that affect its weight and contribution to regional economies. Further, it analyses how each definition has fared in the post-2007/2011 crisis, assessing their resilience. This novel work tackles the emerging discourse around the Blue Economy by highlighting its regional character, and by problematizing the divergent definitions of the concept.