Potentially toxic elements in urban soils from public-access areas in the rapidly growing megacity of Lagos, Nigeria

Famuyiwa, Abimbola O. and Davidson, Christine M. and Ande, Sesugh and Oyeyiola, Aderonke O. (2022) Potentially toxic elements in urban soils from public-access areas in the rapidly growing megacity of Lagos, Nigeria. Toxics, 10 (4). 154. ISSN 2305-6304 (https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10040154)

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Rapid urbanization can lead to significant environmental contamination with potentially toxic elements (PTEs). This is of concern because PTEs are accumulative, persistent, and can have detrimental effects on human health. Urban soil samples were obtained from parks, ornamental gardens, roadsides, railway terminals and locations close to industrial estates and dumpsites within the Lagos metropolis. Chromium, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry following sample digestion with aqua regia and application of the BCR sequential extraction procedure. A wide range of analyte concentrations was found—Cr, 19–1830 mg/kg; Cu, 8–11,700 mg/kg; Fe, 7460–166,000 mg/kg; Mn, 135–6100 mg/kg; Ni, 4–1050 mg/kg; Pb, 10–4340 mg/kg; and Zn, 61–5620 mg/kg—with high levels in areas close to industrial plants and dumpsites. The proportions of analytes released in the first three steps of the sequential extraction were Fe (16%) < Cr (30%) < Ni (46%) < Mn (63%) < Cu (78%) < Zn (80%) < Pb (84%), indicating that there is considerable scope for PTE (re)mobilization. Human health risk assessment indicated non-carcinogenic risk for children and carcinogenic risk for both children and adults. Further monitoring of PTE in the Lagos urban environment is therefore recommended.


Famuyiwa, Abimbola O. ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8658-3432, Davidson, Christine M. ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8045-3530, Ande, Sesugh ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3297-6863 and Oyeyiola, Aderonke O.;