24-hour movement behaviors in children with chronic disease and their healthy peers : a case-control study

Elmesmari, Rabha A. and Reilly, John J. and Paton, James Y. (2022) 24-hour movement behaviors in children with chronic disease and their healthy peers : a case-control study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19 (5). 2912. ISSN 1660-4601 (https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052912)

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Background: Time spent in 24-h movement behaviors is important to health and wellbeing in childhood, but levels of these behaviors in children with chronic disease are unknown. Methods: A case-control-study included 80 children with chronic disease; 20 with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), 20 with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), 20 with congenital heart disease (CHD), 20 with cystic fibrosis (CF); pair-matched individually for age, sex, and timing of measures with 80 healthy children. Habitual time spent in movement behaviors and step counts were all measured with an activPAL accelerometer over 7 days. Comparisons against recommendations and differences between the groups were made. Results: Time spent in physical activity and step counts/day were significantly lower in T1DM and CHD groups compared to controls. Only 20/80 children with chronic disease and 29/80 controls met step count recommendations. Sedentary time was significantly higher in children with CF compared to controls. Time spent asleep was slightly greater in children with chronic disease, significant only for the JIA group. Sleep disruption was consistently greater in those with chronic disease, reaching significance for T1DM, CHD, and CF groups. Conclusions: For some groups of children with chronic disease, 24-h movement behaviors may differ substantially from recommendations, and slightly but systematically from their healthy peers. Optimizing levels of 24-h movement behaviors should confer a number of benefits for child health, development, and wellbeing.