Feasibility studies on black start capability of distributed energy resources

Yan, Weijie and Hong, Qiteng and Liu, Di and Dysko, Adam; (2021) Feasibility studies on black start capability of distributed energy resources. In: The 10th International Conference on Renewable Power Generation (RPG 2021). IET, Stevenage, UK, pp. 869-875. ISBN 9781839536069 (https://doi.org/10.1049/icp.2021.2257)

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Power systems are experiencing massive changes in their generation patterns with increasing penetration of decentralised renewable generation and decommissioning of thermal plants. Such changes in generation patterns will bring significant challenges to the black start arrangement. Conventional black start process relies on large thermal plants connected at the transmission level to energise the system using a "top-down" approach. This may no longer be adequate or applicable in future networks due to the closure of most thermal plants. This paper will investigate the feasibility of using Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) to provide a "bottom-up" black start approach. Compared with the conventional approach, using DERs for black start has potential advantages of reduced restoration time and more flexible recovery procedure. In this paper, a comprehensive review of the existing black start studies utilising DERs will be provided. Additionally, several case studies using a distribution network model containing multiple resources such as wind, micro-hydro generator, and energy storage will be presented to demonstrate the feasibility of providing black start capability by DERs. Furthermore, the associated technical issues that need to be considered to enable such a black start approach will also be discussed, along with feasible solutions and suggestions for further investigation.