Sampling in design research : eight key considerations

Cash, Philip and Isaksson, Ola and Maier, Anja and Summers, Joshua (2022) Sampling in design research : eight key considerations. Design Studies, 78. 101077. ISSN 0142-694X (

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How a research team defines their study sample can be decisive in shaping impact on both practice and theory. However, sampling in design research faces several major challenges, including diverse terminology, limited prior literature, and lack of common framework for discussing sampling decisions. We address these challenges by bringing together guidance from across related research fields as well as cross-referring to examples from published design research. We offer a structured process for sample development and present eight key sampling considerations. The paper contributes to research method selection, development, and use, as well as extending discussions surrounding knowledge construction, standards of reporting, and design research impact.