Nanovibrational stimulation inhibits osteoclastogenesis and enhances osteogenesis in co-cultures

Kennedy, John W. and Tsimbouri, Monica P. and Campsie, Paul and Sood, Shatakshi and Childs, Peter G. and Reid, Stuart and Young, Peter S. and Meek, Dominic R. M. and Goodyear, Carl S. and Dalby, Matthew J. (2021) Nanovibrational stimulation inhibits osteoclastogenesis and enhances osteogenesis in co-cultures. Scientific Reports, 11. 22741. ISSN 2045-2322 (https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-02139-9)

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Abstract

Models of bone remodelling could be useful in drug discovery, particularly if the model is one that replicates bone regeneration with reduction in osteoclast activity. Here we use nanovibrational stimulation to achieve this in a 3D co-culture of primary human osteoprogenitor and osteoclast progenitor cells. We show that 1000 Hz frequency, 40 nm amplitude vibration reduces osteoclast formation and activity in human mononuclear CD14+ blood cells. Additionally, this nanoscale vibration both enhances osteogenesis and reduces osteoclastogenesis in a co-culture of primary human bone marrow stromal cells and bone marrow hematopoietic cells. Further, we use metabolomics to identify Akt (protein kinase C) as a potential mediator. Akt is known to be involved in bone differentiation via transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and it has been implicated in reduced osteoclast activity via Guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit α13 (Gα13). With further validation, our nanovibrational bioreactor could be used to help provide humanised 3D models for drug screening.