Cohort profile : early pandemic evaluation and enhanced surveillance of COVID-19 (EAVE II) database

Mulholland, Rachel H and Vasileiou, Eleftheria and Simpson, Colin R and Robertson, Chris and Ritchie, Lewis D. and Agrawal, Utkarsh and Woolhouse, Mark and Murray, Josephine LK and Stagg, Helen R and Docherty, Annemarie B and McCowan, Colin and Wood, Rachael and Stock, Sarah J and Sheikh, Aziz (2021) Cohort profile : early pandemic evaluation and enhanced surveillance of COVID-19 (EAVE II) database. International Journal of Epidemiology, 50 (4). pp. 1064-1074. ISSN 0300-5771 (

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In December 2019, a novel coronavirus COVID-19 emerged from Wuhan, China, and was soon declared as pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on the 11 March 2020.1 The UK soon followed suit and implemented a national lockdown on the 23 March 2020. As of 9 December 2020, according to WHO, this highly infectious virus has infected more than 67 million people and led to over 1.5 million deaths across the world.2 There is a growing body of evidence on the epidemiology of the condition, risk factors for poor outcomes and effects of interventions.3–9 The rapid generation of robust data is crucial to monitor, understand and mitigate the effects of COVID-19. The Early Pandemic Evaluation and Enhanced Surveillance of COVID-19 (EAVE II) database creates a national, real-time prospective cohort using Scotland’s health data infrastructure, to describe the epidemiology of COVID-19 infection, patterns of healthcare use and outcomes, and insights into the effectiveness of and safety of vaccines and treatments for COVID-19.10 This work builds on an established cohort for seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine and anti-viral assessment in Scotland EAVE (Early Estimation of Vaccine and Anti-Viral Effectiveness).11,12 EAVE is a dormant pandemic protocol that is part of the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Pandemic Preparedness Research Portfolio and a platform for previous studies on influenza vaccine and antiviral assessment.