Electric vehicle charging choices : modelling and implications for smart charging services

Daina, Nicolò and Sivakumar, Aruna and Polak, John W. (2017) Electric vehicle charging choices : modelling and implications for smart charging services. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 81. pp. 36-56. ISSN 0968-090X (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trc.2017.05.006)

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The rollout of electric vehicles (EV) occurring in parallel with the decarbonisation of the power sector can bring uncontested environmental benefits, in terms of CO2 emission reduction and air quality. This roll out, however, poses challenges to power systems, as additional power demand is injected in context of increasingly volatile supply from renewable energy sources. Smart EV charging services can provide a solution to such challenges. The development of effective smart charging services requires evaluating pre-emptively EV drivers’ response. The current practice in the appraisal of smart charging strategies largely relies on simplistic or theoretical representation of drivers’ charging and travel behaviour. We propose a random utility model for joint EV drivers’ activity-travel scheduling and charging choices. Our model easily integrates in activity-based demand modelling systems for the analyses of integrated transport and energy systems. However, unlike previous charging behaviour models used in integrated transport and energy system analyses, our model empirically captures the behavioural nuances of tactical charging choices in smart grid context, using empirically estimated charging preferences. We present model estimation results that provide insights into the value placed by individuals on the main attributes of the charging choice and draw implications charging service providers.