Dual-frequency cesium spin maser

Bevington, P. and Gartman, R. and Stadnik, Y. V. and Chalupczak, W. (2020) Dual-frequency cesium spin maser. Physical Review A, 102 (3). 032804. ISSN 2469-9926 (https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.102.032804)

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Comagnetometers have been validated as valuable components of the atomic physics toolbox in fundamental and applied physics. So far, the explorations have been focused on systems involving nuclear spins. Presented here is a demonstration of an active alkali-metal (electronic) system, i.e., a dual-frequency spin maser operating with the collective cesium F=3 and F=4 spins. The experiments have been conducted in both magnetically shielded and unshielded environments. In addition to the discussion of the system's positive-feedback mechanism, the implementation of the dual-frequency spin maser for industrial nondestructive testing is shown. The stability of the F=3 and F=4 spin precession frequency ratio measurement is limited at the 3×10-8 level by the laser frequency drift, corresponding to a frequency stability of 1.2mHz for 104 s integration time. We discuss measurement strategies that could improve this stability to nHz, enabling measurements with sensitivities to the axion-nucleon and axion-electron interactions at the levels of fa/CN∼109 and fa/Ce∼108 GeV, respectively.