Classical and quantum collective recoil lasing : a tutorial

Piovella, Nicola and Gisbert, Angel Tarramera and Robb, Gordon R. M. (2021) Classical and quantum collective recoil lasing : a tutorial. Atoms, 9 (3). 40. ISSN 2218-2004 (

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Collective atomic recoil lasing (CARL) is a process during which an ensemble of cold atoms, driven by a far-detuned laser beam, spontaneously organize themselves in periodic structures on the scale of the optical wavelength. The principle was envisaged by R. Bonifacio in 1994 and, ten years later, observed in a series of experiments in Tübingen by C. Zimmermann and colleagues. Here, we review the basic model of CARL in the classical and in the quantum regime.