Microstructure development in Laser Metal Deposition of Ti-5553

Hicks, C. and Konkova, T. and Blackwell, P. (2020) Microstructure development in Laser Metal Deposition of Ti-5553. MATEC Web of Conferences, 321. 03019. ISSN 2261-236X (https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/202032103019)

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Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) is promoting increased interest with regard to manufacturing parts of complex geometry. It is especially important with respect to manufacturing cost reductions for relatively expensive Titanium alloys. The rapid and directional cooling processes inherent with LMD produce non-homogeneous microstructures and large residual stresses. Knowledge of the LMD process to optimise deposited microstructures is in high demand. The high-strength β-Titanium alloy, Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr (Ti-5553), was deposited using LMD on to a heat-treated substrate of the same alloy. Two blocks of 15 x 15 x 6.4 mm3 were made with different laser power to powder feed rate ratios followed by microstructural analyses. Both blocks have almost identical geometry and density. Low ratios of laser power to powder feed rate resulted in pure β phase in the deposited layers and re-melting in the substrate zone. High ratios resulted in larger columnar β grains, the precipitation of nano-scaled α, and a pronounced increase in microhardness ≈1 mm above and below the substrate interface. This could be detrimental to the mechanical properties of the substrate and highlights the importance of the optimisation of LMD parameters.