The ventilation of buildings and other mitigating measures for COVID-19 : a focus on wintertime

Burridge, Henry C. and Bhagat, Rajesh K. and Stettler, Marc E. J. and Kumar, Prashant and De Mel, Ishanki and Demis, Panagiotis and Hart, Allen and Johnson-Llambias, Yyanis and King, Marco-Felipe and Klymenko, Oleksiy and McMillan, Alison and Morawiecki, Piotr and Pennington, Thomas and Short, Michael and Sykes, David and Trinh, Philippe H. and Wilson, Stephen K. and Wong, Clint and Wragg, Hayley and Davies Wykes, Megan S. and Iddon, Chris and Woods, Andew W. and Mingotti, Nicola and Bhamidipati, Neeraja and Woodward, Huw and Beggs, Clive and Davies, Hywel and Fitzgerald, Shaun and Pain, Christopher and Linden, P.F. (2021) The ventilation of buildings and other mitigating measures for COVID-19 : a focus on wintertime. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences, 477 (2247). 20200855. ISSN 1471-2962 (

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The year 2020 has seen the emergence of a global pandemic as a result of the disease COVID-19. This report reviews knowledge of the transmission of COVID-19 indoors, examines the evidence for mitigating measures, and considers the implications for wintertime with a focus on ventilation.


Burridge, Henry C., Bhagat, Rajesh K., Stettler, Marc E. J., Kumar, Prashant, De Mel, Ishanki, Demis, Panagiotis, Hart, Allen, Johnson-Llambias, Yyanis, King, Marco-Felipe, Klymenko, Oleksiy, McMillan, Alison, Morawiecki, Piotr, Pennington, Thomas, Short, Michael, Sykes, David, Trinh, Philippe H., Wilson, Stephen K. ORCID logoORCID:, Wong, Clint, Wragg, Hayley, Davies Wykes, Megan S., Iddon, Chris, Woods, Andew W., Mingotti, Nicola, Bhamidipati, Neeraja, Woodward, Huw, Beggs, Clive, Davies, Hywel, Fitzgerald, Shaun, Pain, Christopher and Linden, P.F.;