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Driving innovations in manufacturing: Open Access research from DMEM

Strathprints makes available Open Access scholarly outputs by Strathclyde's Department of Design, Manufacture & Engineering Management (DMEM).

Centred on the vision of 'Delivering Total Engineering', DMEM is a centre for excellence in the processes, systems and technologies needed to support and enable engineering from concept to remanufacture. From user-centred design to sustainable design, from manufacturing operations to remanufacturing, from advanced materials research to systems engineering.

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Transdermal and buccal delivery of methylxanthines through human tissue in vitro

Thakur, R.A. and Michniak, B.B. and Meidan, V.M. (2007) Transdermal and buccal delivery of methylxanthines through human tissue in vitro. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, 33 (5). pp. 513-521. ISSN 0363-9045

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Abstract

We examined the in vitro permeation of central nervous stimulants-caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine across human skin with the aid of six chemical enhancers. It was found that oleic acid was the most potent enhancer for all three methylxanthines. Further optimization studies with different solvents showed that caffeine transport could be enhanced to give flux values up to 585 μg/cm2.hr-1. Theobromine and theophylline delivery rates proved insufficient. An additional study involving a buccal tissue equivalent showed that this membrane was more permeable than skin for all model actives tested and would offer an alternate way of delivery.